Short essay on chennai

Please forward this error screen to 198. Water transport is one of the oldest means of transport in India. Prior to the advent of rail and road transports, goods and people were moved short essay on chennai one place to another through water transport.

According to one estimate the construction of each km of railway and road needs an investment of Rs. 75 crore respectively whereas only Rs. Their development is faster and maintenance cost much lower. Sea ways or ocean ways also called shipping. Inland waterways refer to using inland water bodies like rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc for transporting goods and people from one place to another. India has a long historical tradition of using such waterways. Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, Yamuna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada and Tapi etc.

The decline of river transport began with the construction of the railways during the middle of the 19th century. So much so that today its share is only one per cent in the country’s transport system. India is a land of many long and perennial rivers. But water transport is not very popular in the country. As regards canals, out of 4,300 km of navigation canals, only 900 km is suitable for navigation by mechanized crafts.

About 160 lakh tonnes of cargo is annually moved by Indiand Wjjter Transport. Ganga Bhagirathi Hugli, the Brahmaputra river , the Barak river, the delta and lower courses of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers, the lower courses of the Narmada and Tapi, the Zuari and Mandovi rivers in Goa, the Kali, Shravati and Netravati in Karnataka. Kerala and the Buckingham Canal of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The Ganga river provides an important inland waterway for the country.

It is a perennial river fed by Monsoon rains during rainy season and melting of the snow during dry summer days. On its 2,510 km length from snow to the sea it passes through most densely populated parts of the country and nurturing a number of premier cities of north India like Hardwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Patna. Despite heavy diversion of water to irrigation canals its main channel still maintains a depth of more than 10 metres from Patna downstream. Recently the river has been made navigable up to Allahabad and regular steamer service has started between Haldia and Allahabad.

Some of the tributaries of the Ganga like Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak, and Gomati may also be utilised for navigation. The Hugli River is an important distributary of the Ganga in its delta course and is intensively used for river navigation between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour. Silting and consequent decrease in thi depth of water is the main obstacle in this navigation. The Farakka Barrage Project supplies 15,000-21,000 cusecs of water through a 42-km long canal to improve flow and clear silt deposits.

Tea, timber and jute to Kolkata. Pandu, Jogighopa and Dibrugarh are important river ports. Navigation is difficult in the river due to barrier effects of Bangladesh, presence of river islands, sand banks and shoals and very strong current of the river during rairily season. Peninsular rivers are mainly rained and go dry during the dry season. Hence, these are not very suitable for navigation. Some transport is carried on in their lower reaches where ground is flat and quantity of water is satisfactory. Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are such rivers navigable in their lower courses.